The Rite of Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor

July 4th marks the death of the Archduke Otto von Hapsburg (1912-2011), eldest son and heir of the last reigning Emperor of Austria. In remembrance of him and his Cæsarian ancestors, we here provide a translation of the rite of coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor, from Vatican Codex 6112, published in Acta Selecta Caeremonialia Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae, and probably used for the coronation of the Lord Henry VI and his wife the Lady Constance by the Most Holy Lord Celestine III in 1191.


Here begins the Roman Order for the Blessing of an Emperor, when he receives his crown from the Lord Pope in the Basilica of Blessed Peter the Apostle at the altar of the martyr Saint Maurice.

On Sunday, early in the morning, the Emperor-Elect descends with his wife to the church of Santa Maria Traspontina, near the Terebinth, and is there received with honours by the City Prefect and the Count of the Lateran Palace and his wife, the Judex Dativus,[1] and the Treasurer. He is led through the portico as the clergy of the City, all clad in copes, chasubles, dalmatics, and tunicles with thuribles sings Ecce mitto Angelum meum, up to a dais set up under the upper arch at the top of the steps before the bronze doors of the church of Santa Maria in Turri. There sits the Lord Pope in his chair surrounded by bishops, cardinals, deacons, and the other orders of the Church.

Coronation of Charlemagne by Pope Leo III from Les Grandes Chroniques de France, c. 1332-1350, British Library Royal 16 G VI f. 141v. Image credit, British Library.

Then the Emperor-Elect with his wife, and all his barons, clercs, and laymen kiss the feet of the Lord Pope. The Queen and his other attendants stand back, and the Emperor-Elect swears fealty to the Lord Pope in this wise:

In the name of Our Lord Jesus Christ, I, N., King of the Romans, and future Emperor of the Romans, affirm, pledge, promise, and swear by these holy Gospels before God and the blessed Apostle Peter, and the Vicar of the blessed Apostle Peter, fealty to the Lord N. the Pope, and thy successors who enter into office in the canonical manner, and that I will henceforth be protector and defender of this Holy Roman Church and of thy Person, and that of thy successors in all their needs insofar as I be supported by divine assistance, according to my knowledge and ability, without deceit or evil design. So help me God and these God’s Holy Gospels.

At that point, the Lord Pope’s Chamberlain receives the pall that shall be given to the Emperor-Elect. Thereupon the Lord Pope thrice asks the elect if he shall have peace with the Church. He thrice responds “I will,” and then Lord Pope says, “And I give thee peace, as Christ did to his disciples,” and kisses his forehead, chin (which must be shaved), both knees, and lastly his mouth. Thereafter the Lord Pope rises and thrice asks him if he shall be the son of the Church. He thrice responds, “I will,” and then the Lord Pope says, “And I receive thee as son of the Church,” and places the mantle over him. He kisses the Lord Pope’s chest and takes his right hand, and the Chancellor holds him with the left. The Emperor-Elect is led by the right by the Lord Pope’s Archdeacon, and thus enters through the bronze door up to the silver door, while the clerics of St Peter sing, Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel. The Lord Pope leaves him there to pray, while the queen slowly follows with her escort until the said silver door. Once he has finished praying, the Emperor-Elect rises and the bishop of Albano says the first prayer over him: “O God, whose holdeth in thy hand the hearts of kings, incline the ears of thy mercy to our humble prayers, and grant to thy servant our Emperor N. the government of wisdom, that, having drunk counsel from thy fount, he may please thee and preside over all kingdoms.”

The coronation of Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII in Bologna, the papal coronation of the emperor. Painting by Luigi Scaramuccia, 1661.

Then the Lord Pope enters the church of St Peter as the clergy of that church sing the responsory Petre, amas me. When it is over the Lord Pope says a blessing and sits at the seat prepared for him at the right side of the rota. After the bishop of Albano’s prayer is finished, the Emperor-Elect enters led by the Cardinals Archpriest and Archdeacon and sits at the said place with them, that they might tell him how to respond to the Lord Pope during the scrutiny. Seven bishops sit in order at the Lord Pope’s right as he conducts the scrutiny, and the German bishops sit at the Emperor-Elect’s right. The cardinals and other ranks of the church sit. 

The Lord Pope says,

The ancient ordinance of the holy fathers teacheth and commandeth that whosoever is elected to rule must first be most diligently examined in all charity about the Trinitarian faith, and questioned about sundry matters and morals that suit his government and must needs be observed, according to the saying of the Apostle, “Impose not hands lightly upon any man” (1 Tim. 5:22). Moreover, he who is to be ordained must be first instructed how one raised to this dignity ought to comport himself in the church of God, so that those who impose hands of ordination on him may be free of blame. Therefore by that same authority and precept we ask thee in sincere charity, most beloved son, whether thou wilt give all thy wisdom to the divine service inasmuch as thy nature is capable.

The Emperor-Elect replies, “With all my heart I so wish to obey and consent in all things .” 

Q: “Wilt thou temper thy manners from all evil and as far as thou art able, with God’s help, change them to all good?

R: “I will.” 

Q: “Wilt thou with God’s help keep sobriety?”

R: “I will.”

Q: “Wilt thou give thyself up to divine business, and remove thyself from lowly cares, as far as human frailty permits?”

R: “I will.”

Q: “Wilt thou keep humility and patience in thyself, and incline others to the same?”

R: “I will.”

Q: “Wilt thou be affable and merciful to the poor, to pilgrims, and to all the needy on account of the Lord’s name?”

R: “I will.”

Then let the Lord Pope say, “May the Lord bestow upon thee all these and other goods, and strengthen thee in all goodness.” And all reply, “Amen.”

Then follows the examination of the Emperor-Elect’s faith: Credis secundum intelligentiam &c.

Then the Lord Pope goes to the sacristy and dresses himself in pontifical vestments up to the dalmatic, and thus dressed he sits. Meanwhile, the bishop of Porto says this prayer over the Emperor-Elect in the middle of the medium rotaDeus innerrabilis auctor, as in the anointing of a king. Then the Emperor-Elect goes to Gregory’s choir with the aforesaid Cardinals Archpriest and Archdeacon, who act as his teachers throughout the office of anointing. They dress him with the amice, alb, and cincture, and thus dressed lead him to the Lord Pope in the sacristy. He makes him a cleric and grants him the tunicle, dalmatic, cope, mitre, buskins, and sandals to be used in his coronation, and thus dressed he stands before the Lord Pope. 

After the scrutiny, the Bishop of Ostia leaves through the silver door, where the queen stands in waiting with the judges and her barons, and says the prayer Omnipotens aeterne Deus fons &c. over her. Thereafter, one of the cardinal priests, whom the prior previously appointed, and similarly a cardinal deacon, whom the archdeacon previously commanded, lead the queen to the altar of St Gregory, and there she waits for the Lord Pope to depart in procession. 

After all these things are completed, the ministers dress the Lord Pope with the chasuble and pallium, and place the mitre on his head. Then the procession sets out. The orders go first, according to custom, and then goes the Emperor-Elect with his aforesaid guides, followed by his wife, up to St Peter’s altar. Then the Primicerius sings the Introit with the schola and the Kyrie eleison, and then he is quiet. The Lord Pope goes up to the altar, and after the confession he gives the peace to the deacon, and incenses. After the incensation, he goes up to his seat. In the meantime, the Emperor-Elect and his wife prostrate themselves before St Peter’s altae, and the archdeacon says the litany. After it is over, the Emperor-Elect’s cope is removed.

The bishop of Ostia anoints his right arm with exorcized oil, and between his shoulders, and says,

Lord God Almighty, to whom is all power and dignity, we entreat thee with supplicant devotion and most humble prayer, that thou mightest grant to this thy servant the fruit of the imperial dignity, that, established in thy disposition, no past obstacle might impede his rule of the Church, nor future one one obstruct it; but by the inspiration of thy gift of the Holy Ghost, he might rule the people subject to him with equal balance of justice, and might always fear thee in all his works, and strive continually to please thee. Through &c.

He continues,

May our Lord God Jesus Christ, son of God, who wast anointed by his Father with the oil of gladness above his fellows, by this infusion of holy oil pour over thy head the blessing of the ghostly Paraclete, and make it penetrate unto the depths of thy heart, that thou mightest be made worthy of grasping the invisible by this visible and sensible gift and, having ruled thy temporal kingdom with just governance, of reigning with him for aye, the king of kings, alone without sin, who liveth and glorieth with God the Father in the unity of the same Holy Ghost, &c.

After the king’s anointing follows the blessing of the queen before the altar, Deus qui solus &c, and the anointing of the queen’s breast with holy oil: Spiritus Sancti gratia &c. Then the Lord Pope leaves his seat and goes to the altar of St Maurice followed by the emperor and his queen. The Lord Pope stands at the threshold at the entrance to the altar, and the Emperor-Elect stands before him the middle of the rota with the queen at his right, and the six bishops of the Lateran palace stand around in the rotae which are placed there, according to the ancient custom. The seventh bishop serves the Lord Pope when he officiates at the altar.

Then the first and second Oblationarii take the crowns of the Emperor-Elect and the queen from the altar of St Peter and place them on the altar of St Maurice. The Lord Pope gives the ring to the Emperor-Elect saying,

Receive the ring, the pledge of holy faith, solidity of the realm, and increase of power, by which thou mayest with triumphal power repulse thine enemies, destroy heresies, unite thy subjects, and join them in the steadfastness of the Catholic faith. Through &c.

Prayer after the giving of the ring:

O God, to whom belongeth all power and dignity, give unto thy servant the fruit of his dignity, wherein by thy recompense he might remain and always endure, and strive continually to please thee, through &c.

He girds him with the sword and says,

Receive this sword bestowed on thee with God’s blessing, wherein by the virtue of the Holy Ghost thou mayest resist and repulse all thine enemies and all adversaries of God’s Holy Church, and safeguard the kingdom committed to thee, and protect God’s encampments by the help of the unvanquished conqueror our Lord Jesus Christ, who liveth and reigneth with the Father in the unity of the Holy Ghost forever and ever. Amen.

Prayer after the sword:

O God, who by thy providence dost govern all things in heaven and on earth, be mindful to our most Christian king, that he might break the strength of all his enemies by the virtue of his spiritual sword, and fighting entirely destroy them. Through &c.

Now he is crowned. Then the Archdeacon takes the crown from the altar of St Maurice and gives it to the Lord Pope, who places it over the Emperor-Elect’s head saying this prayer:

Receive the sign of glory, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, so that, scorning the ancient enemy and the contagion of all vices, thou mightest so love judgement and justice and live mercifully, that thou mightest receive the crown of the eternal kingdom from Our Lord Jesus Christ in the company of the saints, who with the Father &c.

Then the Lord Pope places the crown over the queen’s head as seven bishops impose their hands upon her, and the Lord Pope says in a loud voice, while the bishops stay quietly,

Receive the crown of glory and of royal excellence, the honour of gladness, that thou mightest shine and be crowned with splendid and eternal exultation, that thou mayest know thyself the consort of the realm and always prosperously counsel the people of God; and the higher thou art are exalted, the more thou mightest love and keep humility; since thou shinest without wreathed with gold and jewels, so within thou mayest strive to be adorned with the gold of wisdom and the jewels of the virtues, that, worthily and laudably meeting the ever-lasting Spouse Our Lord Jesus Christ with the prudent virgins after the passing of this age, thou mightest be made worthy to enter the kingly door to the heavenly halls, with the help of Our Lord Jesus Christ, who with the Father &c.

Here the Lord Pope gives the sceptre to the emperor saying,

Receive the sceptre, a sign of royal power, the straight rod of of the realm, the rod of virtue, whereby thou mayest rule thyself, and with royal virtue defend holy Church and the Christian people entrusted to thee by God from evil-doers, correct the wicked, bring peace to the upright, and lead them with thine assistance that they might be able to hold the right path, in order that thou mightest arrive from thine earthly kingdom to the ever-lasting one, by the help of him whose kingdom and empire endureth without end for ever and every. Amen.

Prayer after the giving of the sceptre:

O Lord God, fount of all good things and giver of all advancement, grant to thy servant N., we beseech thee, that he mighteth well keep the dignity he hath received, and vouchsafe to strengthen the honour thou hast given him. Honour him before all the kings of earth, enrich him with bountiful blessing, confirm him in the kingly throne with firm stability, visit him with offspring, and grant him long life: let justice ever spring up in his days, that he may glory in his kingdom with joy and gladness everlasting. Through our Lord &c.

 

Coronation of Emperor Sigismund by Pope Eugene IV in 1433. Woodcut after a detail from the Portale del Filarete, a bronze base relief on the gate at St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome by Filarete. Source.

Thereafter the Lord Pope returns to Saint Peter’s altar with his ministers. Then the City Prefect and the Primicerius Judicum lead the emperor and the Prefect of the Navy and the Secundicerius Judicum the empress. When they are standing in their places the Lord Pope begins Gloria in excelsis Deo and the schola responds; then he says this prayer: “O God of all kingdoms and supreme protector of the Roman Empire, grant to thy servant our Emperor that he may wisely perfect the triumph of thy virtue, in order that he who is prince by thy disposition, may always be powerful by thy favour. Through &c.”

Then the archdeacon and other prelates, deacons, primicerius, and subdeacon standing between the cross and the altar begin the laudes saying thrice: “Hear us, O Christ!”, with the schola and notaries responding in the choir, “To our Lord N., by God’s decree Supreme Pontiff and universal Pope, long life!”

The archdeacon and those standing with him again say “Hear us, O Christ!” and the schola and notaries respond, “To our Lord the great and peaceful Emperor, crowned by God, long life and victory!”, also thrice.

“Hear us, O Christ!” The schola and notaries respond, “To our Lady his Wife, the most excellent Empress, long life!” thrice.

Likewise “Hear us, O Christ!” and the response, “To the Roman and German army, long life and victory!” thrice.

Likewise “Saviour of the World!”, and the response, “Help thou them,” thrice.

Likewise, “Holy Mary!”

“St Michael!”

“St  Michael!”

“St Gabriel!”

“St Raphael!”

“St Peter!”

“St Paul!”

“St John!”

“St Gregory!”

“St Maurus!”

“St Mercurius!”

“Christ conquereth, Christ reigneth, Christ commaneth!” and the others respond likewise three times.

“Our hope!”

“Our victory!”

“Our honour!”

“Our glory!”

“Our impregnable wall!”

“Our praise!”

“Our conqueror!”

“To him praise, honour, and power for all ages of ages! Amen.”

When the laudes have finished, the Epistle is read and the Gradual and Alleluia are sung. Then the Emperor and Empress remove their crowns, and the Gospel is read. When it is over, the Emperor puts down his sword and goes up to the Lord Pope’s seat, followed by the Empress, and they offer the Lord Pope bread together with candles and hold. The Emperor also offers the wine and the Empress the water to be used in the Holy Sacrifice that day. Then they return to their places. When the Preface begins, the Emperor removes his cope and puts on his own mantle. At the words Pax Domini, he goes up to receive communion dressed in his own mantle, accompanied by the Empress, and after receiving communion they return to their places. 

After Mass, the Count Palatine goes up to the Emperor, removes his sandals and buskins, and puts on him the imperial greaves and spurs of St Maurice. Receiving their crowns, the Emperor and Empress follow the Lord Pope towards their horses, led by the aforesaid guides. When the Lord Pope comes up to his horse, the Emperor holds his stirrup. Then he is crowned and joins the procession. The Empress follows the Emperor with her escort, and the other barons follow. All the clergy of the City shout their accustomed acclamations from their parishes, and the Jews likewise in their neighbourhood. Let the whole city celebrate and let all the bells ring out. The Emperor’s chamberlains go first, followed by those throwing coins, lest they impede the knights’ progress. When they reach the Holy Stairs, the priores cardinalium of S. Laurence, standing without the walls, begin the laudes, as is the custom, and the rest respond. When they are over, the Emperor dismounts, removes his crown, and holds the Lord Pope’s stirrup as he dismouts. Then the Emperor and the City Prefect lead the Lord Pope to the Leonine Hall,[2] where they separate. The Empress, meanwhile, is led by the Primicerius and Secundicerius Judicum to the Hall of the Empress Julia, where she is to lunch with the bishops and her other barons. The Emperor’s chamberlains and the Lord Pope’s chamberlains serve all the orders of the presbytery of the Holy Palace, as the Pontiff and Emperor await. Then the Emperor lunches seated at the right of the Lord Pope, and everyone else sitting at his seat. 

Pope Clement VII and Emperor Charles V walk in procession after the coronation. Sketch by Juan de la Corte, Museum of Santa Cruz, Toledo.

After lunch one of the deacons rises at the archdeacon’s command and reads a Lesson, after which the cantors rise and sing as they are accustomed. After the chant all rise for the blessings. Let the Lord Pope retire to his chamber, and the emperor to the Hall of the Empress Julia.

When the Emperor-Elect descends from the Mount of Joy,[3] and comes to the Ponticellum, he swears this oath to the Romans: “I, N., who shall be Emperor, swear that I will uphold the Romans’ good customs, and uphold their charters[4] without deceit or evil design. So help me God and these holy Gospels.” He should swear a similar oath at the Colline Gate and at the steps of St Peter.


[1] The ordinary municipal Judge in late-antique Rome, called dativus because he was not elected by the people but appointed by the emperor. See “Dativus” in Du Cange’s Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis.

[2] Also known as the Camera Majoris Palatii, or Triclinium.

[3] Thus called by pilgrims. In Ancient Rome, the hill was called Mons Vaticanus or Clivus Cinnae. The medieval Romans referred to it as Mons Malus, and later Mons Marius (Monte Mario), as it is still known today.

[4] The cartae tertii generis were charters relating to the possession of castles. A libellus was a charter governing the possession of estates. In essence, the emperor swears to rights and privileges of the Roman people.

Dom Guéranger on the Neo-Gallican Prefaces

As Gregory DiPippo over at the New Liturgical Movement begins his discussion of the Neo-Gallican Prefaces whose facultative use the Lord Francis PP. recently extended beyond the confines of France, it seemed germane to translate Dom Prosper Guéranger’s remarks on these very Prefaces.


The same reason [viz. that minds might be elevated to God, and helped to enkindle the holy fire of faith, hope, and charity] has led us to add certain Prefaces when proper ones were lacking, to wit for Advent and certain greater solemnities of the year, namely Corpus Christi, the Dedication, All Saints, and others. Thus we have tried, as much as possible, to draw near to the ancient custom of the Roman Church, where almost every Mass was assigned its own Preface, as is still the case today in the churches that use the Ambrosian Rite. 

Charles de Ventimille, Pastoral Letter announcing the reformed Parisian Missal, 11 March 1738

Why, then, were the prefaces of Advent, the Dedication, All Saints, and even St Denis not taken from the ancient sacramentaries? Why commission the composition of entirely new ones from doctors of the Sorbonne, whose style, so prolix, so bloated, is so far from the refined cadences of St Leo and St Gelasius?

413px-laurent-franc3a7ois_boursier_281679-174929_docteur_en_thc3a9ologie_c3a0_la_sorbonne
Laurent-François Boursier (1679-1749)

Why, above all, was a heretic like Dr Laurent-François Boursier, expelled from the Sorbonne in 1720 for having written against the Council of Embrun,1 given the honour of composing such sacred prayers? To this man the Church of Paris owes the Preface of All Saints, also sung on patronal feasts. In this Preface, Boursier tells God that, by crowning the merits of the saints, He crowns his own gifts: eorum coronando merita, coronas dona tua: a very Catholic expression in one sense, and a very Jansenist one in another.

As a liturgical historian we would be remiss if we did not mention that Boursier died on 17 February 1749 in the parish of Saint-Nicolas-du-Chardonnet, without having retracted his Appeal.2

The Curé of this parish, although an opponent of the Appeal, nevertheless administered the Sacraments to Boursier, and the Archbishop of Beaumont therefore exiled him to Senlis for his act of schism. And yet Boursier’s Preface continued, and continues, to be sung!

Dom Prosper Guéranger, Institutions liturgiques, vol. 2, p. 371.

Notes.

1. A controversial council held in 1727 that deposed the Lord Jean Soanen, bishop of Séez, one of the major baculous opponents of the papal bull Unigenitus, which condemned Jansenist propositions.

2. The appeal against the bull Unigenitus.

A Sequence for Trinity and a Franciscan Musical Treasury

In 1902, the French provinces of the Order of Friars Minor undertook the publication of a richly variegated collection of chants gathered from manuscripts of their Order, under the title Cantus Varii in Usu apud Nostrates ab Origine Ordinis, Aliaque Carmina in Decursu Sæculorum Pie Usu Parta, that is, Various chants in use among our community from the origin of the Order and other songs in use piously composed in the course of the centuries. The prolix title is certainly accurate, and the pieces included range from medieval sequences and hymns to later Latin songs that are not strictly speaking Gregorian chants. Unfortunately, no information is included about the sources whence each piece was taken. Click here to download a PDF of the book.

Among the chants in honour of the Holy Trinity, the volume includes a sequence attributed to Adam of St Victor, the prolific 12th-century composer of liturgical poetry. It is found in several Dominican and Franciscan manuscripts, as well as in the books of a number of French dioceses. It also made its way into the books of the archdiocese of York, and was included in the first printed missal of that use (1509).

In the Cantus Varii, it is set to the melody of the sequence Lauda Sion.

Profitentes Trinitatem,
Veneremur Unitatem,
Pari reverentia;
Professing the Trinity,
Let us venerate the Unity
With like reverence;
Tres Personas asserentes,[1]
Personali differentes
A se differentia.
Let us assert Three Persons
Differing from one another
By a distinction of persons.
Hae dicuntur relative,
Cum sint unum substantive,
Non tria principia;
Persons are said relatively
For they are one in substance,
Not three principles.
Sive dicas tres vel tria,
Simplex tamen est usia,
Non triplex essentia.
Call them three persons or three principles,
Yet the being is simple
The essence is not three-fold.
Simplex esse, simplex posse,
Simplex velle, simplex nosse,[2]
Cuncta simplicia.
Simple being, simple potency,
Simple will, simple knowledge,
All things simple.
Non unius quam duarum
Sive trium Personarum
Minor efficacia.
The power of one
Is not greater than that of two
Or three persons.
Pater, Proles, Sacrum Flamen,
Deus unus sed hi tamen
Habent quaedam propria.
Father, Son, Holy Ghost,
One God: yet they
Have some proper qualities.
Una virtus, unum numen,
Unus splendor, unum lumen,
Hoc una quod alia.
One power, one God-head,
One splendour, one light,
In one and all.
Patri Proles est aequalis,
Nec hoc tollit personalis
Amborum distinctio.
The Father equal to the Son,
But this doeth not not remove
The distinction of persons.
Patri compar Filioque,
Spiritalis ab utroque
Procedit connexio.
Equal to the Father and to the Son,
The Spirit’s connexion
Proceedeth from both.
Non humana ratione
Capi possunt hae Personae,
Nec harum discretio.
By human reason
These Persons cannot be grasped
Nor their distinction.
Non hic ordo temporalis,
Non hic situs, aut localis
Rerum circumscriptio.
Here no succession of time,
No circumscription of situation
Nor of place.
Nil in Deo praeter Deum,
Nulla causa praeter eum
Qui causat causalia.[3]
Nothing in God but God,
No cause but Himself
The cause of all causes.
Effectiva vel formalis
Causa Deus, et finalis,
Sed numquam materia.
God is effective and formal cause
As well as final,
But never material.
Digne loqui de Personis
Vim transcendit rationis,
Excedit ingenia.
Speaking worthily of the Persons
Transcendeth the power of reason,
Exceedeth our talents.
Quid sit gigni, quid processus,
Me nescire sum professus:
Sed fide non dubia.
What is begetting, what proceeding,
I confess I wot not,
But not with doubting fath.
Qui sic credit non festinet,
Et a via non declinet
Insolenter regia;[4]
Let he who believeth this be not hasty
And stray not
Insolently from the royal way.
Servet fidem, formet mores,
Non declinet ad errores
Quos damnat Ecclesia.
Let him keep the faith, form his manners,
And not stray into errors
Which the Church condemneth.
Nos in fide gloriemur,
Nos in una modulemur[5]
Fidei constantia:
Let us glory in our fath,
Let us together sing,
In constancy of faith.
Trinae sit laus Unitati,
Sit et simplex Trinitati
Coaeterna gloria! Amen.
Praise be to the Triune Unity,
And to the simple Trinity
Coëternal glory! Amen.

profitentes

[1] Afferentes in Cantus Varii, a manifest typographical error.

[2] Nolle in Cantus Varii, typo’.

[3] Qui creat causalia in Cantus Varii.

[4] In solenti regia in Cantus Varii, typo’.

[5] Nos in via modulemur in Cantus varii.

Three Introit Tropes for Whitsun

Gladdened by God’s good Ghost, let us sing forth His praises on this holy feast of Pentecost with three exuberant tropes on the day’s Introit Spiritus Domini.

Hodie Spiritus Sanctus

hodie_spiritus

Hodie Spiritus Sanctus descendit super Apostolos omnemque terram replevit: eia! Dic, domne! Spiritus Domini replevit orbem terrarum, alleluia! Hodie Spiritus Sanctus Paraclitus totam replevit domum igne divino: et hoc quod continet omnia scientiam habet vocis. Gratias agamus sanctae Trinitati et unitati maiestatis semper: alleluia, alleluia, alleluia! Today the Holy Spirit hath descended upon the Apostles and hath filled all the earth: ho! Speak, my lord! The Spirit of the Lord hath filled the whole world, alleluia! Today the Holy Spirit hath filled the whole house with divine fire: and that which containeth all things hath knowledge of the voice. Let us give thanks to the holy Trinity and the unity of majesty for aye: alleluia, alleluia, alleluia!

Discipulis flammas infundens

discipulis_flammas

Discipulis flammas infundens caelitus almas: Spiritus Domini replevit orbem terrarum, alleluia! omnigenis linguis reserans magnalia Christi: et hoc quod continet omnia, scientiam habet vocis, alleluia! Ipsi perspicuas dicamus vocibus odas: alleluia, alleluia! Pouring into the disciples propitious flames from heaven, the Spirit of the Lord hath filled the whole world, alleluia! revealing Christ’s mighty deeds in all manner of tongues: and that which containeth all things hath knowledge of the voice, alleluia! With our voices let us cry out limpid hymns to him: alleluia! 

Spiritus almus adest

spiritus_almus

Spiritus almus adest, cunctorum vivificator: Spiritus Domini replevit orbem terrarum, alleluia! Namque replet linguis, qui corda fidelia cunctis: et hoc quod continet omnia mirifico visu satiat: quod continet omne scientiam habet vocis. Ebria namque fides divo solamine cantat: alleluia, alleluia, alleluia! The nourishing Spirit is here, who lives life to all things: the Spirit of the Lord hath filled the whole world, alleluia! Yea verily, he who filleth faithful hearts with every language, and that which containeth all things satisfieth: a wonder to behold: that which containeth all hath knowledge of the voice. Faith drunken—forsooth!—with divine solace singeth: alleluia, alleluia, alleluia!

These tropes were transcribed from the MSS. by Ferdinand Haberl, Tropi antiphonarum ad Introitum usui liturgicum accomodati, Rome, 1980. 

We also wanted to take the opportunity to introduce our readers to our new Music Library, which contains all the chant recordings made for this ’blog by our Notker Balbulus. 

The Jansenist Use: Liturgical Life in Port-Royal

In his monumental Institutions liturgiques, Dom Prosper Guéranger famously castigated the Neo-Gallican liturgies that proliferated in 17th and 18th century France for, inter alia, being products of Jansenist inspiration. Setting aside the question of whether these liturgies betray a heretical notion of predestination, it is true that many figures associated with the Jansenist movement did have a keen interest in the liturgy. Contrary to what one might expect given Dom Guéranger’s accusations, these “Jansenists” prized respect for ancient custom and repudiated needless novelty. 

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The Abbey of Port-Royal-des-Champs (© RMN-GP (musée de Port-Royal des Champs) / © Gérard Blot).

The intellectual centre of Jansenism was the Abbey of Port-Royal, a community of Cistercian nuns who, after a reform in the early 17th century led by the formidable Abbess Angélique Arnauld, became noted for their exemplary religious observance and cultivation of liturgical piety. Their piety attracted a number of intellectuals who chose to settle as solitaires on the abbey grounds, leading a retired life of study and simple manual labour, including Angélique’s brother Antoine, one of the most prominent Jansenist theologians. Both the nuns and solitaries set up schools to teach neighbouring children. 

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The nuns of Port-Royal holding a conference in the solitude on the abbey grounds (© RMN-GP / © Gérard Blot).

One of those children was Jean-Baptiste Le Brun des Marettes, whom our readers will remember as the author of the Voyages liturgiques. His father had been sent to the galleys for publishing Jansenist works, and Jean-Baptiste himself once did a stint at the Bastille for his involvement in the controversy. His main interest, however, was not moral theology but liturgy. His Voyages evince his veneration for liturgical antiquity and opposition to modern developments in matters of ritual, furnishing, and vestments. Yet he found a way to reconcile such views with his enthusiasm for the Neo-Gallican reforms of the Mass and Office, ultimately sharing the hubristic certainty of most men of his age that their own putative enlightenment was able to improve upon “Gothic barbarism”. Our Aelredus has described and critiqued the seemingly contradictory tastes that Jean-Baptiste Le Brun shared with other Jansenist figures

With these remarks in mind, let us see how the liturgy was celebrated in the Jansenist stronghold of Port-Royal, in a chapter of the Voyages that Le Brun des Marettes wrote before the abbey’s suppression in 1709 and the destruction of most of its buildings. (Although the Voyages was published in 1718, Le Brun des Marettes employs the present tense in this chapter.) 

We are obliged to the Amish Catholic for his help in this translation, which he has cross-posted on his ‘blog. He has penned the following preface:

The Voyages liturgiques offers several fascinating glimpses into the communal piety of Port-Royal des Champs. Marettes pays attention to the physical space of Port-Royal. He reports that the paintings in the church are by Philippe de Champaigne. The great French classicist had a daughter at the convent, Soeur Catherine de Saint-Suzanne, and seems to have provided the monastery with several portraits of both nuns and solitaires as well as several edifying works of art. The large altarpiece depicting the Last Supper is today in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon, with a copy in the Louvre. Marretes devotes particular attention to the epitaphs in and around the church. The epitaphs for the solitaires Emmanuel le Cerf, an Oratorian, and Jean Hamon, a medical doctor and mystic, are especially moving.

Yet it is the liturgical and communal details he provides here that are most exciting for the historian of Jansenism and which, in fact, force us to take the nuns more seriously as daughters of St. Benedict and St. Bernard. Following the egalitarian reform of Mère Angélique, the Abbey did not require dowries of its postulants. Singing the office according to the use of Paris, they prayed the whole Psalter every week. The first chapter of the Constitutions of Port-Royal is dedicated to veneration of the Blessed Sacrament, a significant organizational choice. There were in fact both communal and individual devotions to the Blessed Sacrament at Port-Royal; for, “in addition to engaging in perpetual adoration … they also have the custom of prostrating themselves before the Sacrament before going up to receive holy communion.” Following an ancient usage, they only exposed the Blessed Sacrament during the Octave of Corpus Christi, and even then, only after the daily High Mass. Usually, the Sacrament was reserved in a hanging pyx, “attached to the end of a veiled wooden fixture shaped like a crosier.” The French Jansenists seem to have had a fixation with hanging pyxes; both M. Saint-Cyran and M. Singlin wrote about “suspension” of the Blessed Sacrament in this form.

The community would meet for chapter daily. The nuns engaged in an exacting and penitential adherence to the Rule, including silence, vegetarianism, abstinence from strong drink, and only a single meal per day in Lent. In their persons as in their ecclesiastical furniture, they followed the Cistercian spirit of holy simplicity; Marettes reports that “The nuns’ habits are coarse, and there is neither gold nor silver in their church vestments.” Yet they were not without the consolation of quiet reading in the garden during summertime.

Marettes reminds us that Port-Royal was not just a community of nuns, but also included male hermits and domestics. He writes, “After the Credo, the priest descends to the bottom of the altar steps and blesses the bread offered by one of the abbey’s domestics.” These servants and workers seem to have had a special participation in the liturgy through this rite, so reminiscent of the blessing of bread found even today in the Eastern Churches. The Necrology of Port-Royal includes these men as well in its roll-call of the Abbey’s luminaries, confirming the sometimes-overlooked egalitarianism of Port-Royaliste spirituality.

One of the more striking moments in the text comes when Marettes writes that “On Sundays and feasts of abstention from servile work there is a general communion; at every Mass said in this church at least one of the nuns receives communion.” The practice of lay communion at every Mass contradicts the usual picture of the Jansenists receiving infrequently or as discouraging lay communion. The nuns themselves, at least, seem to have received the Sacrament daily.

And I cannot help but see in one custom a potent metaphor for the troubled history of the monastery. Marettes writes, “On Holy Saturday, they extinguish the lights throughout the entire house, and during the Office they bring back the newly blessed fire.” The extraordinary and unjust persecution that the nuns endured under the authorities of the French Church and State – to the point of being deprived of communion during Easter, of being denied the last rites, of condemnation to a slow decline even after reconciliation with the Archbishop, and, at the very end, of having their bodies desecrated and even fed to the dogs – must have seemed like a very long Holy Saturday. Yet the blessed fire of the Holy Ghost does not abandon those who faithfully serve God in humble prayer and penitence. Where we find the Cross, Resurrection follows.

It is not for us to resurrect the nuns and solitaires of Port-Royal; historians can only do so much. But by taking the dead on their own terms, we can at least pay them the homage we owe any historical figure, and perhaps especially the defeated, the maligned, the powerless, and the forgotten. Only by doing so can we reckon with our implication in the longstanding myths that efface those voices. It is my hope that the publication of this important translation will help us in that process of revision.

Richard T. Yoder
The Amish Catholic


Port-Royal-des-Champs is an abbey of nuns of the Order of Cîteaux lying between Versailles and the former monastery of Chevreuse.

The church is quite large, and its simplicity and cleanliness inspires respect and devotion. 

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The interior of the church, with the main altar at the right (© RMN-GP / © Gérard Blot).

The main altar is not attached to the wall, since the ample and well-kept sacristy is located behind it. Above the altar hangs the holy pyx, attached to the end of a veiled wooden fixture shaped like a crosier. It is set under a large crucifix above a well-regarded painting of the Last Supper by Philippe de Champaigne.

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The main altar, bare aside from the Crucifix. Above it hangs the Blessed Sacrament inside a veiled pyx (engraving from Dom Antoine Rivet de La Grange’s Nécrologie de Port-Royal-des-Champs, 1723).

There is nothing on the altar but a crucifix. The four wooden candlesticks are set on the ground at its sides.

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There were two relic altars outside the entrance to the nuns’ choir (© RMN-GP / © Gérard Blot).

The woodwork of the sanctuary and parquet floor is very well maintained, as is that of the nuns’ choir. Indeed, the stalls are kept in such good condition that one would think they were carved not twenty years ago, when in fact they are over 150 years old.1

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The nuns’ choir.

The church contains some paintings by Champaigne, and a very well-kept holy water basin to the right of its entry.

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The cloister, where several abbesses and nuns were interred (© RMN-GP / © Gérard Blot).

Inside the cloister, there are several tombs of abbesses and other nuns. From these tombs one can garner

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Engraving of one of the tombs in the cloister, shewing a nun with a maniple (from the Voyages liturgiques).

1. that the first abbesses of the Order of Cîteaux, following the spirit of St Bernard, did not have croziers. Even today, the Abbess of Port-Royal does not use one.

2. that in this monastery the nuns used to be consecrated by the bishop. Two of them are represented on the same tomb wearing a sort of maniple.2 The inscription around the tomb reads:

Here lie two blood-sisters, consecrated nuns of this abbey, Adeline and Nicole aux Pieds d’Estampes. May their souls rest in everlasting peace. Amen. Adeline died in the year of our Lord 1288.3

There is an ancient necrology or obituary in this abbey that includes the ritual for the consecration or blessing of a nun. It describes how on these occasions the bishop celebrated Mass and gave communion to the nun he blessed. To this effect he consecrated a large host which he broke into eight particles, giving one as communion to the nun. He then placed the seven other particles of his host in her right hand, covered by a dominical or small white cloth. During the eight days after her consecration or blessing, she gave herself these particles as communion. Priests also used to give themselves communion during the forty days after their ordination or consecration.4

Under the lamp by the baluster lies a tomb dated 1327, if I remember correctly, which is worthy of description, especially given that its most interesting aspect is misreported in the Gallia Christiana of the brothers de Sainte-Marthe.

It used to be the custom for devout noble ladies to take up the nun’s habit during their last illness, or at least to be clothed in it after their death. See, for example, the tomb of Queen Blanche, mother of King St Louis, at Maubuisson Abbey near Pontoise. Here in Port-Royal we find the tomb of one Dame Marguerite de Levi—wife of Matthew V de Marly of the illustrious House of Montmorency, Grand-Chamberlain of France—buried in a nun’s habit, with this inscription:

Here rested, whose name thou shalt have there hereafter. Marguerite was the wife of Matthew de Marly, and daughter of the noble Guy de Levi. She bore six boys. After her husband died, she went to the nuns. Amongst the claustral sisters she chose to make her home. In her long rest, may she be buried in nun’s clothing. May eternal light shine upon her in peace everlasting. Year 1327.5

By the door of the church, in the vestibule, is the tomb of a priest vested in his vestments. His chasuble is rounded in all corners, not cut or clipped, gathered up over his arms, and hanging down below and behind him in points. His maniple is not wider below than it is on top, and he does not wear his stole crossed over his breast, but straight down like bishops, Carthusians, and the ancient monks of Cluny, who have rejected innovation on this point. His alb has apparels on the bottom matching the vestments: this is what the manuscripts call the alba parata. They are still used in cathedral churches and ancient abbeys.

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The Abbey viewed from the east. Note the domestics’ cemetery next to the entrance to the church (© RMN-GP / © Gérard Blot).

Next to the church door and the clock tower lies the small cemetery of domestics, where two epitaphs are worthy of note.

To God the Best and Greatest.

Here lies Emmanuel le Cerf, who, after dedicating most of his life to the education of the people, deemed the evangelical life superior to evangelical preaching and, in order that he who had lived only for others should die to himself, embraced a penitential life in his old age as eagerly as he did seriously. He embraced the weight of old age, more conducive to suffering than aught else, and various diseases of the body as remedy for his soul and advantageous provision for the journey to eternity. Humbly he awaited death in this port of rest, living no longer as a priest but as a layman, and attained it nearly ninety years old. He died on 8 December 1674, and wished to be buried in this cemetery near the Cross. May he rest in peace.6

And the other:

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Jean Hamon

Here rests Jean Hamon, doctor, who, having spent his youth in the study of letters, was eminently learned in the Greek and Latin tongues. Seeing that he flourished in the University of Paris by the renown of his eloquence, and that his fame grew daily for his skill of medicine, he feared the lure of flattery and fame and the haughtiness of life. Suddenly stirred by the prompting of the Holy Spirit, he quickly poured out the value of his inheritance into the bosom of the poor and, in the thirty-third year of his age, he dragged himself into this solitude, as he had long pondered doing. First he applied himself to the labour of the fields, then to serving the ministers of Christ, and soon returned to his original profession, healing the wounded members of the Redeemer in the person of the poor, among whom he honoured the handmaidens of Christ as the spouses of the Lord. He wore the coarsest garments, fasting nearly every day, slept on a board, spent day and night in nearly perpetual vigils, prayer, and meditation, nocturnal works everywhere breathing the love of God. For thirty-seven years he accumulated the toils of medicine, walking some twelve leagues every day, very often while fasting, to visit the sick in the villages, providing them what they might need, helping them by counsel, by hand, with medicines, with food whereof he deprived himself, living for twenty-two years on eating bran bread and water, which he ate secretly and alone, while standing up. As wisely as he had lived, considering every day his last, thus he departed this life in the Lord, amidst the prayers and tears of his brethren, in deep silence and sweet meditation of the Lord’s mercies, with his eyes, mind, and heart fixed on Jesus Christ, mediator between God and man, rejoicing that he obtained the tranquil death for which he had prayed, that he might gain eternal life, at the age of 69, on 22 February 1687.7

Heeding the spirit of St Bernard, the nuns are subject to the Lord Archbishop of Paris, who is their superior. They also sing the office according to the use of Paris, except that they sing the ferial psalms every day in order to fulfill the Rule of St Benedict which they follow, and which binds them to saying the entire psalter every week. This they do with the approbation of the late M. de Harlay, Archbishop of Paris.

At the blessing and aspersion of holy water on Sundays, the abbess and her nuns come forward to receive it at the grill from the priest’s hand.

After the Credo, the priest descends to the bottom of the altar steps and blesses the bread offered by one of the abbey’s domestics. He then announces any feasts or fasting days during the coming week, and gives a short exhortation or explanation of the day’s Gospel.

At every High Mass of the year, the sacristan or thurifer goes to the nuns’ grill at the end of the Credo to receive, through a hatch in the screen, a box from the sister sacristan containing the exact number of hosts needed for the sisters who are to receive communion. He brings them to the altar and gives them the celebrant.

At High Masses for the Dead, the sacristan goes to the grill to receive the bread, a large host, and the wine in a cruet, and brings them to the altar. He gives the host to the priest on the paten, kissing it on the inside edge, and the cruet of wine to the deacon, who pours the wine into the chalice.

At the Agnus Dei, the nuns embrace and give each other the kiss of peace.

On Sundays and feasts of abstention from servile work there is a general communion; at every Mass said in this church at least one of the nuns receives communion.

Devotion for the Most Blessed Sacrament is so great in this monastery that in addition to engaging in perpetual adoration as part of the Institute of the Blessed Sacrament (it is for this reason that they have exchanged their black scapular for a white one charged with a scarlet cross over the breast, about two fingers in width and a half-foot tall), they also have the custom of prostrating themselves before the Sacrament before going up to receive Holy Communion.8

Nevertheless, the Blessed Sacrament is only exposed during the Octave of Corpus Christi, and this every day after High Mass. For here Mass is never said at an altar where the Blessed Sacrament is exposed. We will come back to this point.

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The nuns of Port-Royal processing through the cloister on Corpus Christi. Note the sleeves of the clerics’ surplices are split, long, and trailing, as in Paris and the rest of the ecclesiastical province of Sens (© RMN-GP / © Gérard Blot).

The nuns of this monastery observe an exact and rigorous silence. Except in cases of illness, they never eat meat, and fish only rarely, about twelve or fifteen times a year. They solely drink water, and observe the great fast of Lent in its full rigour, as in the age of St Bernard, eating only at five in the evening after Vespers, which they usually say at 4 p.m., even though they wake up at night to sing Matins and perform manual labour during the day.

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The refectory of Port-Royal (© RMN-GP / © Gérard Blot).

A spiritual conference is held after lunch, during which they continue to work, and during which it is not permitted to speak aloud.

During the summer, the nuns are sometimes allowed to go into the garden after dinner, but many refrain from doing so, and those that go do so separately, taking a book to read or some work to do.

Matins are said here at 2 a.m. together with Lauds, but in winter Lauds are said separately at 6 a.m, and then a Low Mass is celebrated between Lauds and Prime. During the rest of the year, Prime is said at 6 a.m., followed by a Conventual Low Mass. Chapter follows with a reading from the Martyrology, the Necrology, and the Rule, some chapter of which the Abbess explicates once or twice a week. Then they hold the proclamation of faults, and appropriate penances are imposed.

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The nuns of Port-Royal in chapter (© RMN-GP / © Gérard Blot).

Terce is said at 8:30 a.m., followed by High Mass. Sext is at 11 a.m., and on ecclesiastical fast days at 11:45, after which they go to lunch, except in Lent when they do not dine, for in the Rule of St Benedict to lunch means not to fast. None is at 2 p.m. in winter and at 2:30 in summer.

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The nuns of Port-Royal singing the Office (© RMN-GP / © Gérard Blot).

The first bell for Vespers rings at 4 p.m., and the office begins some fifteen minutes later. It finishes at 5 or 5:15, for they sing very unhurriedly and distinctly. After Vespers in Lent, they sound the refectory bell, and the nuns go there to lunch and dine together. One sees nuns following this regime until they are 72 or 75 or even older. Not too long ago there was a priest who, in Lent, only ate in the evening, even though he was 87 years old, and lived till he was 92.

On Holy Saturday, they extinguish the lights throughout the entire house, and during the Office they bring back the newly blessed fire.

The nuns’ habits are coarse, and there is neither gold nor silver in their church vestments.

The Abbey receives girls without a dowry, and makes neither pacts or conventions for the reception of nuns, following the primitive spirit of their monastery, as is clear from the following acts:

Be it known to all men that I, Eudes de Thiverval, esquire, and Thècle my wife gave in pure and perpetual alms, for the salvation of our souls and those of our ancestors, two bushels of corn, that is, one of winter-crop and the other of oats from our tithe-district of Jouy, to the Church of Our Lady of Port-Royal and the nuns serving God therein, to be collected every day on the feast of St Remigius. Be it known that the Abbess and Convent of the said place freely received one of our daughters into their society of nuns. Not wishing to incur the vice of ingratitude, we have given the said two bushels of corn in alms to the said House of our will without any pact. Which, that it may remain ratified and fixed, we have made to be confirmed by the support of our seal. Done in the year of grace 1216.9

Another:

Renaud, by the grace of God bishop of Chartres, to all who would earlier or later inspect the present page, in the Lord greeting. We make it known to all future and present that by these presents that the Abbess and Convent of Nuns of Porrois [i.e. Port-Royal] freely received in charity Asceline, daughter of Hugues de Marchais, esquire, as a sister and nun of God. Thereafter the said esquire, lest he should give away his said daughter to be betrothed to Christ without a dowry from part of his patrimony, standing in our presence did give and grant to the Church of Porrois and the nuns serving God therein in perpetual alms for the portion of his said daughter the return of one annual bushel of corn in his grange of Marchais or Lonville to be collected every year in the Paris measure of Dourdan, and three firkins of wine in his vineyard of Marchais to be collected yearly, and ten shillings in his census-district of Marchais. That his gift may remain ratified and fixed, at the petition of the same Hugues we have made the present letters to be confirmed by our seal in testimony. Done at Chartres in the year of the Incarnation of Our Lord 1217, in the month of April.10

Another:

Be it known to all them that I, Odeline de Sèvre, gave in pure and perpetual alms to the house of Port-Royal for the soul of my late husband Enguerrand of happy memory, and for the salvation of my soul, and of all my children and ancestors, and especially for the salvation and love of my daughter Marguerite who received the religious habit in the same house, four arpents of vine in my clos of Sèvre to be possessed in perpetuity. My sons Gervais the eldest, Roger, and Simon praised, willed, and granted this donation, to whom it belonged by hereditary right. And further we offered the same donation with the book upon the altar of Port-Royal. In testimony and perpetual confirmation whereof, since by said sons Gervais, Roger, and Simon were not yet esquires and did not yet have seals, I the said Odeline confirmed the present charter by the support of my seal with their will and convent. Done on the year of our Lord 1228.11

Notes.

1. Author’s note: [After the Abbey’s suppression] the altar and choir stalls were purchased by the Cistercian nuns of Paris and placed in their church, where one can see them.

2. Translators’ note: As did Carthusian nuns.

3. Hic jacent duae sorores germanae, hujus praesentis Abbatiae Moniales Deo sacratae, Adelina et Nicholaa dictae ad Pedem, de Stampis quondam progenitae: quarum animae in pace perpetua requiescant. Amen. Obiit dicta Adelina anno Domini M. C. C. octog. octavo. 

4. Author’s note: See Fulbert. Epist. 2 ad Finard. Rituale Rotomag. ann. 1651.

5. Hic requievit, ibi post cujus nomen habebis.
Margareta fuit Matthæi Malliancensis
Uxor; & hanc genuit generosus Guido Levensis.
Sex parit ista mares. Vir obit. Petit hæc Moniales.
Intra claustrales elegit esse lares.
In requie multa sit Nonnæ veste sepulta;
Luceat æterna sibi lux in pace suprema.
Anno M. C. bis, LX. bis, V. semel, I. bis.

6. D. O. M. Hic jacet Emmanuel le Cerf, qui cum majorem vitæ partem erudiendis populis consumpsisset, vitam evangelicam evanglicæ prædicationi anteponendam ratus, ut sibi moreretur, qui aliis tantum vixerat, ad pœnitentiam accurrit senex eo festinantius, quo serius; pondusque ipsum senectutis, quo nihil ad patiendum aptius, et varios corporis morbos in remedium animæ conversos, tanquam opportunum æternitatis viaticum amplexus; mortem humilis, nec se jam sacerdotem, sed laicum gerens, in hoc quietis portu expectavit, quæ obtigit fere nonagenario. Obiit 8 Decembris 1674 et in Cœmeterio prope Crucem sepeliri voluit. Requiescat in pace.

7. Hic quiescit Joannes Hamon Medicus, qui adolescentia in studiis litterarum transacta, latine græceque egregie doctus, cum in Academia Parisiensi eloquentiæ laude floreret, et medendi peritia in dies inclaresceret, famae blandientis insidias et superbiam vitæ metuens, Spiritus impetu subito percitus, patrimonii pretio in sinum pauperum festinanter effuso, anno ætatis xxxiij in solitudinem hanc, quam diu jam meditabatur, se proripuit. Ubi primum opere rustico exercitus, tum Christi ministris famulatus, mox professioni pristinæ redditus, membra Redemptoris infirma curans in pauperibus, inter quos ancillas Christi quasi sponsas Domini sui suspexit; veste vilissima, jejuniis prope quotidianis, cubatione in asseribus, pervigiliis, precatione, et meditatione diu noctuque fere perpetua, lucubrationibus amorem Dei undique spirantibus, cumulavit ærumnas medendi quas toleravit per annos xxxvj quotidiano pedestri xij plus minus milliarum itinere, quod sæpissime jejunus conficiebat, villarum obiens ægros, eorumque commodis serviens consilio, manu, medicamentis, alimentis, quibus se defraudabat, pane furfureo et aqua, idque clam et solus, et stando per annos xxij. sustentans vitam, quam ut sapienter duxerat, quasi quotidie moriturus, ita inter fratrum preces et lacrymas in alto silentio, misericordias Domini suavissime recolens; atque in Mediatorem Dei et hominum Jesum Christum, oculis, mente, et corde defixus, exitu ad votum suum tranquillo lætus, ut æternum victurus clausit in Domino, annos natus 69 dies 20 viij Kalend. Mart. anni 1687.

8. Translators’ note: The nuns of Port-Royal began to practice perpetual adoration in 1623 to beg for protection from the Abbot General of the Cistercian order, who opposed Mother Angélique Arnaud’s reform of the abbey. Shortly thereafter, she endeavoured to found an Institute “whose principal end should be honouring the Most Holy Sacrament of the Altar, and to ensure therefor that there be always someone adoring It day and night” (Mémoires d’Angélique, p. 57). In August 1627, the Most Holy Lord Pope Urban VIII signified his approbation of her designs by promulgating a brief putting Port-Royal under episcopal jurisdiction and setting up the Institute of the Blessed Sacrament.

9. Noverint universi quod ego Odo de Tiverval miles et Thecla uxor mea dedimus in puram et perpetuam eleemosynam, pro remedio animarum nostrarum et antecessorum nostrorum, Ecclesiae beatae Mariae de Portu-Regio et Monialibus ibidem Deo servientibus duos modios bladi, unum scilicet hibernagii, et alterum avenae in decima nostra de Joüy, singulis annis in festo S. Remigii percipiendos. Sciendum vero est quod Abbatissa et ejusdem loci Conventus unam de filiabus nostris in societatem Monialium benigne receperunt. Nos vero ingratudinis vitium incurrere nolentes, praedictos duos modios dictae jam domui de voluntate nostra sine aliquo pacto eleemosynavimus. Quod ut ratum et immobile perseveret, sigilli nostri munimine fecimus roborari. Actum anno gratiae M. CC. xvj.

10. Reginaldus Dei gratia Cartonensis Episcopus, universis primis et posteris praesentem paginam inspecturis salutem in Domino. Notum facimus omnibus tam futuris quam praesentibus quod, quoniam Abbatissa et Conventus Sanctimonialium de Porregio Acelinam filiam Hugonis de Marchesio militis in sororem et sanctimonialiem Dei et caritatis intuitu gratis receperant, postmodum dictus miles in nostra constitutus praesentia, ne dictam filiam suam nuptam Christi parte sui patrominii relinqueret indotatam, Ecclesiae de Porregio et Monialibus ibi Deo servientibus dedit et concessit in perpetuam eleemosynam, pro portione dictae filiae suae unum modium bladi annui redditus in granchia sua de Marchesio vel de Lonvilla singulis annis percipiendum ad mensuram Parisiensem de Dordano, et tres modios vini in vinea sua de Marchesio annuatim percipiendos, et decem solidos in censu suo de Marchesio. Ut autem donum ejus ratum et stabile permaneret, ad petitionem ipsius Hugonis praesentes Litteras in testimonium sigillo nostro fecimus roborari. Actum Carnoti anno Dominicae Incarnationis M. CC. septimo decimo, mense Aprili.

11. Noverint universi quod ego Odelina de Sèvre donavi in puram et perpetuam eleemosynam domui Portus-Regis pro anima bonae memoriae Ingeranni quondam mariti mei, et pro salute animae meae, et omnium liberorum et progenitorum meorum; et maxime pro salute et amore Margaretae filiae meae quae in eadem domo religionis habitum assumpserat, quatuor arpentos vineae in clauso meo de Sèvre jure perpetuo possidendos. Hanc autem donationem laudaverunt, voluerunt et concesserunt filii mei Gervasius primogenitus, Rogerus et Simon, ad quos eadem donatio jure hereditario pertinebat. Immo et ipsi eandem donationem obtulimus cum libro super altare Portus Regis. In cujus rei testimonium et conformationem perpetuam ego praedicta Odelina, quia praedicti filii mei G. R. et Simon necdum milites erant, et necdum sigilla habebant, de voluntate eorum et assensu praesentem Chartam sigilli mei munimine roboravi. Actum anno Domini M. CC. vigesimo octavo.