The Funeral of Christ: Franciscan Treasures of Good Friday

A guest article by Anaïs Uberti, a student in Jerusalem and communications director at the Terra Sancta Museum.

Today churches around the world celebrate and commemorate the Passion and death of Jesus Christ. Each year, on the very site where the historical events took place, in the Holy Sepulcher, a ceremony takes place that is one of a kind: the Funeral of Christ. The most intense moments of the Easter Triduum in Jerusalem are brought to life by the Franciscans of the Holy Land bring to life with the use of exceptional liturgical objects.


Each year on Good Friday, thousands of pilgrims gather in Jerusalem from all parts of the world. They come to celebrate the Passion of Our Lord on Calvary, and follow the Way of the Cross through the streets of the Old City. In the evening in the Holy Sepulcher, the Funeral of Christ takes place following an ancient custom that goes back to the beginning of the Franciscan presence in Jerusalem. Its current form has not changed since 1750.

 

©M.-A. Beaulieu/Custodia Terrae Sanctae (CTS)

 

The funeral procession begins in the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, and is punctuated by readings from the Gospel. After of moment of silent prayer, the Franciscans raise their voices gradually in the twilight of the Holy Sepulcher to intone Psalm 51 (50) “Miserere mei, Deus–have mercy on me, O God.” The procession of the faithful makes its way slowly to Calvary, bearing the crucifix on which a statue of Christ has been nailed. The statue used this year was offered to the Holy Land by the Catholics of Colombia. The only sound that breaks the silence of the Deposition at the high point of the ceremony is the rustle of the ministers’ vestments: a rich 19th century Spanish set of black velvet with gold and silver embroidery, decorated with the instruments of the Passion, made in Valencia specially for the Holy Sepulcher. At each station during the procession, the Custos vests one of the six priests with a black stole. The set of stoles was recently restored by the Sister Adorers of Saint Savior, who live in the Milk Grotto of Bethlehem. Particular care is taken on this day in the choice of vestments, in order to express the deep reverence and gratitude of the faithful to the Creator for the sacrifice of his Son. For this occasion, the altar of Calvary is also dressed in its most beautiful array. The Greek altar, only allowed to be used by the Latins once per year for this ceremony, is specially dressed in an antependium belonging to the same Spanish set.

 

In the background, the Custos of the Holy Land vested in a cope of black velvet. The deacons are vested in dalmatics from the same Spanish set. ©M.-A. Beaulieu/CTS

 

When the effigy of Christ arrives on Calvary, two deacons take off their dalmatics and remove the crown of thorns with pincers and the nails in his hands and feet with a hammer, placing them on four plates donated by Charles II of Spain. The hammer-strikes on the wood resound throughout Golgotha, otherwise silent despite being packed with faithful and pilgrims.

 

 

The deacon holds a crown of thorns he has just removed from the statue of Christ with pincers. He prepares to place it on the Spanish plate in the foreground. On the two sides of the altar are the two pokals (Austrian and Polish) and the aspersorium.
©M.-A. Beaulieu/CTS

 

 

Wrapped in a white cloth, the dead Christ is then carried to the Stone of Unction. Here the Custos of the Holy Land kneels and, removing his cope, gently anoints the body, symbolically representing Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus. He then pours perfumes on the body with an aspersorium of silver filigree. Then he sprinkles grains of incense from two silver pokals offered by Emperor Leopold I (Hapsburg) and Mikołaj Zebrzydowski, voïvode  of Krakow in the 17th century.

 

The Custos incenses and perfumes the body of Christ on the Stone of Unction. To the right, the silver aspersorium contains the perfumes
©M.-A. Beaulieu/CTS

 

Then Christ is carried to the Aedicule and placed on the stone of the tomb. There it rests until Holy Saturday morning, for the proclamation in the Holy Sepulcher of the Lord’s Resurrection and the victory of life over death.

 

Christ in the Tomb. ©M.-A. Beaulieu/CTS

 

Gemma Animae (209 – 218): The Bishop’s Vestments

(Cross-posted at Liturgical Arts Journal today).

On Thursday, we saw the Gemma Animae‘s commentary on the priestly vestments. Today we look at the bishop’s vestments, following up on several other posts last week on pontifical sandals and gloves.

If the seven priestly vestments signified the perfection of priestly virtue and the fullness of divine life poured out in the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, then the seven additional vestments of the bishop indicate another level of perfection, corresponding to his higher state. We notice the same pattern here: the garments are read according to all four modes of Scriptural interpretation, bringing into relief the person of Christ incarnate in the bishop and his liturgical action.

Largely, the bishop’s garments represent his preaching, teaching, and pastoral functions. We don’t often think of the rich symbolic meanings behind the ancient garments, so redolent with Scriptural and Christological associations. The mystical commentary can give us eyes to see.

Honorius of Autun, Gemma Animae, ch. 209 – 218

Ch. 209
On Episcopal Vestments

The bishops wears the same seven vestments and is adorned by seven more, namely the sandals, dalmatic, rationale, mitre, gloves, ring, and staff. The word sandals (sandalia) comes from the sandarac plant (sandica herba) also known as sandaracus, with which the sandals are said to be painted. We believe that their use comes from Our Lord himself or from the apostles, who preached in them. It is the sort of open footwear in which the foot is partly covered and partly nude. Thus it signifies preaching, in which the Gospel is partly opened to listeners, and partly left closed.

Ch. 210
On Sandals

Sandals are made from the skins of dead animals because the Apostles and Doctors of the Church strengthen their preaching with the writings of the prophets, who are God’s animals. The bottom of the foot is covered by the sole of this shoe, and the top is naked because in Gospel preaching the truth must be hidden from carnal men through the letter, but laid bare for spiritual men through allegory. A strap of white leather runs up from the sole because the preacher must leave behind all earthly business and his tongue must be innocent and without guile. A connected strap runs above the foot because they carry good news [of their preaching] to the bishop. The upper strap (lingua) is the tongue of spiritual men, who chose him for the work of preaching. Sandals are covered on the inside with white leather because the preacher’s conscience should shine with purity before God. But outside its appearance is black, because his life should be cast down in humility before men. The top part where the foot enters is stitched from many threads, because he must pour heavenly preaching into minds through many sentences. The strap (lingua) lies over the foot, and the preacher’s tongue (lingua) over the people. The string that runs from the strap to the other side of the sole is evangelical perfection that stretches toward God. The strings that run from both sides are the law and prophecy, which bear testimony to the Gospel. Tying the sandal is the mystery of Christ’s Incarnation, which is untied by the hand of the preacher. He trods upon the padding underneath his foot so that he may learn to despise the things of this world and to love the things of heaven. The priests of the Law wore stockings which covered uncleanness. The priests of the Church wear sandals because they preach cleanness also to others.

Ch. 211
On the Dalmatic

The dalmatic is named after the province of Dalmatia, where it was first invented. It stands for the Lord’s seamless tunic and the apostles’ colobium. The colobium was a hooded garment without sleeves, as can still be seen in monastic hoods or the tunics of sailors. Now Pope St. Sylvester substituted the colobium with the dalmatic, adding sleeves and ordering it to be worn during the Sacrifice. It is worn by the bishop at Mass, when Christ’s Passion is celebrated, because it is shaped like the Cross. The vestment is white because Christ’s flesh was generated from a chaste virgin and because the bishop’s life must be a shining example of chastity. It has the form of the Cross because Christ underwent the torture of the Cross for our sake, and the bishop must crucify himself to vice and concupiscence. The sleeves of this garment are like the wings of a mother hen, for God nurtured the first humans in Paradise like eggs in a nest. He gathered up the Church, his chicks, under his wings of grace and mercy. In the same way the bishop must gather up the faithful under the wings of the Old and New Law by his preaching, spread himself over them by his good conduct, and by his prayer protect them from the raptors of the sky, who are the demons. The dalmatic must be seamless as the Lord’s tunic, because he must keep the integrity of the faith whole and entire.

Ch. 212
On the Dalmatic and What it Signifies

The dalmatic also signifies religion pure and unspotted, for we are commanded to visit the orphans and widows and to keep our life spotless before God. The dalmatic has two scarlet stripes in front and behind, because the Old and New Law shine with the love of God and neighbor, in which the bishop must be wreathed. The two purple stripes signify the blood of Christ, poured out for two peoples. Unspottedness corresponds to the love of God; the visitation of our brethren to the love of neighbor; and the scarlet color is understood to be works of mercy, which are offered on account of the twin love of widows and orphans. The tassels that hang from the dalmatic are the words and example of the preacher, which flow from the virtue of religion. The tassels hang in front and behind because the twin commandment of love is found in both the Law and the Gospel. In each of the stripes there are fifteen tassels on each side, before and behind, because in the Old Law fifteen psalms go out like the fifteen steps on the way of charity, and likewise in the New there are fifteen branches sprouting from the tree of life. Now the branches are these: “Love is patient; love is kind; love is not envious or boastful or arrogant or rude. It does not insist on its own way; it is not irritable or resentful; it does not rejoice in wrongdoing, but rejoices in the truth. It bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things. Love never ends”  (I Corinthians 13). The left side has tassels that signify the toils of human labor because the active life is worried and troubled about many things. The right side does not have tassels because the contemplative life remains calm, and the queen standing at the right hand has nothing sinister in her. The great size of the sleeves is the good cheer of the giver.

Ch. 213
On the Rationale

The rationale is taken from the Law, where it was made of gold, violet, and purple and measured one span (Exodus 28). Doctrine and truth were placed on it, and twelve precious stones, in which the names of the sons of Israel were inscribed, and the pontiff wore it on his chest as a remembrance of the people. This garment appears also among our vestments. It is attached to the chest at the top part of the chasuble, covered in gold and gems. It warns the bishop to be vigorous in reason and by the gold of wisdom, the violet of spiritual intelligence, and the purple of patience to tend always toward Christ (who measures the heavens in a span), to radiate doctrine and truth, to shine with the gems of virtue, to imitate the holiness of the twelve apostles, and to remember the whole people in the Sacrifice .

Ch. 214
On the Pontifical Mitre

The pontifical mitre is also taken from the practice of the Law. It is made from cotton and is called a tiara, cidaris, infula, or pileus. The mitre that veils the head, in which the senses are located, means custody of the senses against the temptations of the world through following the Lord’s commands. We do this in exchange for the crown of life, which God has promised to those who love him. The mitre is also the Church, and the head is Christ, of whom the bishop is a figure. The mitre that surrounds the bishop’s head is made of cotton, a material that is rendered white through much labor, while the Church is made clean by Baptism, made white by the labor of good works, and deeply yearns to see Christ her head in glory, never ceasing to imitate him through various passions in order to obtain the crown of life. Moreover, the bishop’s head is adorned with the mitre when the Church enlightened by his doctrine gives honor to his dignity, and the whole clergy and people gather around him.

Ch. 215
On the Gloves


The use of gloves has been handed down by the Apostles. Now the hands signify good works, but the gloves signify their hiddenness. For sometimes the hands are veiled in the gloves and sometimes they are taken off to leave the hands bare. In the same way good works are sometimes concealed in order to avoid all show of arrogance, but at other times they are made manifest for the edification of our neighbors. Gloves are put on when the following is fulfilled: “Beware of practicing your piety before others in order to be seen by them” (Matthew 6:1). They are taken off again when this one is fulfilled: “Let your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father in heaven” (Matthew 5:16). The gloves are seamless because the pontiff’s actions must be concordant with the true faith.

Ch. 216
On the Ring

The use of the ring is believed to come from the Gospel, where the prodigal son is vested in a robe and a ring is put on his finger for the feast of the fattened calf (Luke 15). Formerly kings used to sign letters with a ring and noblemen used to wed their wives this way. It is said that a wise man named Prometheus first made an iron ring as a sign of love, and placed a stone of adamant in it. For just as iron vanquishes all, so love conquers all. And as adamant cannot be broken, so love cannot be overcome. He decided to wear it on the finger through which the heart’s vein runs, and thus it has the name annularis. But later gold rings were substituted for iron ones and set with gems rather than adamant. For just as gold is the most excellent metal, so affection is the most excellent of good things, and just as gold is embellished with a gem, so love is adorned by affection. The bishop wears a ring to show that he is the Church’s spouse and like Christ will lay down his life for her in time of need. Let him seal the mysteries of Scripture in a place hidden from the unfaithful, but unseal all secrets for the Church.

Ch. 217
On the Episcopal Staff

The staff is used on the authority of the Law and the Gospel, and is called the pastoral staff, shepherd’s crook (capuita), rod (ferula), or crook (pedum). For Moses held a staff in hand when he pastured his sheep. At the Lord’s command, he carried it into Egypt with him, used it to work wonders that terrified his enemies, who were like wolves devouring the Lord’s flock. Like a shepherd leading his sheep to pasture, he led the Lord’s flock out of Egypt through the Red Sea with this staff, used it to bring bread from heaven and water from the rock, and led them with it into the land flowing with milk and honey. This staff was nothing other than pastoral staff, which he used to guide his flock like a shepherd. Some authors call this staff a crook (pedum), because shepherds used its curved head to grab and drag the feet of their flock.

Ch. 218
Again on the Episcopal Rod and Staff

In the Gospel Our Lord commanded the apostles to carry nothing with them besides a staff when they went to preach (Mark 6; Luke 9). Because the bishops are the pastors of the Lord’s flock, as both Moses and the apostles were, so they keep a staff for protection. The staff signifies the authority of Christian doctrine, by which the weak are supported. The rod is a figure for the power of governing, by which the ways of the unjust are corrected. The bishops carry a staff to raise up the weak in faith through sound teaching; they carry a rod to correct the restless through their power. The rod or staff is curved so that it can drag the wayward sheep back toward penitence by their teaching. It is sharp on the end to cast out the rebellious by excommunication and frighten the heretics away like wolves from Christ’s sheepfold.

On the Chasuble, Stole, and Dalmatic

(Translated from Lebrun’s Explanation and also published at Liturgical Arts Journal)

Chasuble

The Chasuble

The chasuble, casula[1] or planeta was a large round mantle[2] with an opening at the top to pass the head through. During the first seven centuries, it was the ordinary long garment of men. The people stopped using it, but consecrated persons retained it. The Capitularies of 742 ordered priests and deacons not to stop wearing it;[3] and for nine hundred years the Church has given the chasuble to priests at their ordination[4] as the standard garment for offering the Holy Sacrifice. The Greeks have kept the chasuble without any modification, while in the last two centuries the Latins have cut it back little by little, removing that part that impeded the free movement of the arms. Previously it was necessary to roll and lift up the priest’s chasuble during the incensation and the elevation of the Sacred Host or chalice, something which is still done unnecessarily purely out of custom. The chasuble, as a garment that covers the whole body, has been seen as a fitting representation of Christ’s yoke, represented by the cross depicted on it either in front, as in Italy; or on the back, as in France; or both in front and back as has been done in Germany, in keeping with the pious sentiments of the author of the Imitation of Christ,[5] for the last three hundred years. The priest who puts aside his own glory to carry the cross of Jesus Christ thus has a right to say as he puts on the chasuble: O Lord, Who said: My yoke is sweet, and My burden light: grant that I may be able so to bear it, that I may be able to obtain Thy grace.[6]

Waterford Treasures / Feb 2014 / Photos by Peter Grogan @ Emagin

Vestments particular to deacons: The Stole and Dalmatic

Besides the amice, alb, cincture and maniple we have mentioned, deacons wear also the dalmatic and a stole peculiar to themselves.

The stole of deacons was originally, as that of priests, a long, thin cloth attached to the left shoulder,[7] something like how the principal Master of the Feast in the Romans’ solemn feasts wore an honorary serviette on his left shoulder, as one can see in the triumphs that Onuphre Panvin has described and had engraved.[8]

This white cloth attached on the left shoulder of the deacons fluttered about as they came and went in the Church during their ministry. Saint John Chrysostom says that the two flowing and fluttering ends imitated the wings of angels, and represented their activity,[9] as Simeon of Thessalonica also remarked[10] after Chrysostom.[11] Gregory of Tours, in the 6th century, still speaks of the orarium as a very white cloth.[12] The Fourth Council of Toledo in 633 ordered deacons to wear only one orarium on the left shoulder, and forbade it to be decorated with gold or to be colored.[13] But in many other Churches the enthusiasm for embellishing everything that was used in the holy mysteries was the reason they came to be decorated. In ancient times the Latins and also the Greeks wore the stole on the left shoulder and let it fall in front and behind, something like the orarium or white cloth that St. John Chrysostom described. We see these hanging stoles[14] in many ancient depictions.[15] But because these two long and flowing ends could encumber the deacon as he moved about, during the Communion the Greeks decided to remove it from the left shoulder and let it fall around the shoulders and chest, forming a cross in front and behind.[16] The Latins, leaving it on the left shoulder, have been content to let the two ends fall and stop on the right side, so as not to be hindered by letting it flow. We observe this currently in practice, and some even, to keep it from fluttering entirely, it is placed under the dalmatic; though the ancient depictions and the Council of Braga show us that it was placed above.[17]

dalmatic

The dalmatic, so-called because it came from the Greek province of Dalmatia,[18] was introduced in Rome in the second century.[19] It was an ample tunic with large, short sleeves, suitable for those who were obliged to move about. The garment thus became very useful and common among bishops and deacons. In the Acts of the martyrdom of St. Cyprian, we can see that this saint left his mantle to his executioners and gave his dalmatic to the deacons.[20]

The deacon Hilary, authors of the questions on the Old and New Testaments which he wrote about three hundred years after the conquest of Jerusalem, or around 365, says that the deacons and the bishops both wore the dalmatic.[21] St. Isidore, in the 6th century, regards the dalmatic as a sacred garment, white, and decorated with purple bands.[22] Remigius of Auxerre describes it as a white garment with red bands.[23] This is how the deacons’ dalmatic became a garment of solemnity that was meant to inspire holy joy, in the expression of the Pontifical.[24]

In Lent, and in certain other days of penitence in which vestments of joy are not suitable, the deacons wear the chasuble, which in the earliest times was the most common garment of the clergy. But in order to move about without being hindered, before beginning the Gospel they take off the chasuble, fold and twist it, and place it on the left shoulder, and let it fall behind along with the stole under the right arm, where it is held by the cincture.[25]This is what Amalarius[26] in the 9th century and the pseudo-Alcuin[27] give us to understand. The deacons still wore the stole hanging from the left shoulder. Thus, when they let one of the ends fall in front and the other behind, and fixed them on the right side as is the current practice, they also adjusted the folded and twisted chasuble in the manner of a sash over the stole. But later, in place of the folded chasuble and the sash-arrangement, a band of fabric was substituted. The Roman, Parisian, and other missals call this the stola latior.[28] In certain churches, as at Cambrai, Arras, etc., in order to better approximate the folded and twisted chasuble, they place a band of stuffed fabric over the ordinary stole.

While the deacons do not take off the chasuble, they fold it, not from each side toward the right and left shoulders, as priests once did, but only in front, in order to grant their arms some freedom of movement. Indeed the chasubles are so trimmed in this way that it is no longer necessary to raise them; but it serves nevertheless to recall the spirit of the ancient custom, and to distinguish the chasubles of the ministers from that of the priest.


NOTES

[1] Casa means house, and casula a small house. The chasuble was formerly so ample that it was like a small house in which a man lived. Planeta means something that wanders. The chasuble which has only one opening to pass the head through and which was formerly a round and completely unadorned mantle, without any special feature to distinguish front from back, could be rotated easily about the neck. Thus it was a “wandering” vestment very suitably named “planet.”

[2] Several of these great chasubles are still kept at Notre-Dame of Paris, Saint-Denis, Saint-Martin-des-Champs, and at the Chartreux. Priests who are not ashamed to wear this cumbersome garment still use them from time to time. Some of these great chasubles had a cap attached, as can be observed in several ancient depictions, but there are few examples of these and the ancient books speak nothing of them. At the Cathedral of Metz they are put to use during Advent and Lent; and only on ferial days during Lent at the Collegiate Church of Saint-Sauveur. They are employed at Narbonne, Toul, Cambrai, and Arras; and on Holy Thursday at Paris.

[3] Decrevimus quoque ut presbyteri vel diaconi non sagis, laicorum more, sed casulis utantur ritu servorum Dei (Conc. vol. 6 col. 1535; Capitul. vol. 1, pg. 148).

[4] See the Sacramentary of Senlis written in 880 and kept in Paris at the Library of Sainte-Geneviève: Presbyteris quando vestitur casula: Benedictio Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus sancti descendat super te, et sis benedictus in ordine sacerdotali, et offeras placabiles hostias pro peccatis, etc. This prayer Benedictio is also found in the Missal of Saint Eloi, Sacram. de S. Greg. p. 238. It also appears in the Pontifical of Seez, of 1045: Recipe planetam ut possis legaliter celebrare Missam (Bibl. Reg. n. 3866).

[5] Book 4, chapter 5.

[6] Domine, qui dixisti, jugum meum suave est, et onus meum leve, fac ut istud portare sic valeam, quod consequar tuam gratiam.

[7] In the Catalogue of the ancient popes, written at the beginning of the reign of Justinian, we find this Constitution of Pope Zosimus: Constituit ut diaconi laevam tectam haberent de palliis linostinis. See the Propylaeum Maii, pg. 53, of the learned Jesuits of Anvers, who continue to publish the Acts of the saints.

[8] De Triumphis [Ed.: Or rather, perhaps, his De Ludis Circensibus (1600)]

[9] Hom. de filio prodigo. (Pseudo-Chrysostom, PG 59 520 ln. 1-3): “Dum ministri sacri officii, imitantes angelorum alas tenuibus suis lineis velis, quae sinistris humeris insident […].}

[10] Simeon Thess. de Templo: [Or rather De clericis ordinandis, PG 155, 382-383, ch. 173-174]: “Ille enim orario velut aliis conspicuus fit et splendidus….Sed praesertim dum communionis fit particeps Seraphim illa imitatur […]. Ideo diaconus ut Seraphim figurantibus flabellum a pontifice traditur. Illa autem alas angelorum designat […]. Angelorum autem ordinem et vices sustinent […]. ”

[11] This stole, long called an orarium, was a sign of the deacons’ jurisdiction, since they used them in the church to make announcements, to read, to pray, or to order a genuflection, as in the Jewish synagogues someone held a kerchief in his hand to invite the people to say Amen. See Casaubon and Fr. Morin. This is why the Council of Laodicea forbade subdeacons from wearing this orarium. (Can. 22). And when during the ordination the deacons are given the power to read the Gospel in the church, this orarium is also given as a mark of this power: Recipe istud orarium, ut habeas licentiam legendi Evangelium (Pontif. Sagiense ms. sec. XI from the Royal Library).

[12] Orarium candor lintei, etc. (De gloria Mart. vol. 2, chapter 93. 105.

[13] Unum orarium oportet Levitam gestare in sinistro humero…Caveant ergo Levitae gemino uti orario, sed uno tantum et puro, nec ullis coloribus aut auro ornato (Conc. Tolet. c. 39).

[14] Though the deacon’s stole was worn anciently on the left shoulder, they have worn it around the neck in various times in many French churches, the two ends hanging in front like that of bishops and priests. This is discernible in many depictions: in that of St. Vincent the Deacon, on the portal of St. Germain-l’Auxerrois de Paris;Screen Shot 2018-04-10 at 10.25.18 PM in that of Saint Etienne, on the portal of the Cathedral of Metz [Ed.: Does not appear today]; and again we find it in Amalarius, Deacon of Metz, who says with regard to the deacon’s stole that it descends to the knees, stola ad genua tendit, and that he wears it around the neck, sciat se diaconus in stola superposita collo (Ministrum, etc., book 2, chapter 20). But when Amalarius had been to Rome, he saw that before the Gospel the deacon put aside the chasuble, rolled it, and let it pass behind with the stole under the right arm, so that until the Gospel a part of the stole hung in the back. This is what he tells us in his additions: Stolamque post tergum ducit subtus dextram alam una cum planeta (Praefat. 2 in lib. de Offic.). Later this practice of putting the stole over the left shoulder was adopted everywhere. In the 13th century, Durandus supposed this practice had been perennial, that the deacons had always worn it that way, and he only gave the reason why: Cur sacerdotibus circa collum, et diaconis super sinistrum humerum ponatur (Book 3, chapter 5). The new Pontifical, like the ancient ones, takes it for granted in the ordination of priests, when it says that the bishop takes the stole from the left shoulder to pass it over the right, and adjusters the part of the stole that hangs in back to place it over the chest: Reflectit orarium, sive stolam ab humero sinistro cuiuslibet, capiens partem quae retro pendet, et imponens super dexterum humerum aptat eam ante pectus.

[15] In the Glossaire Latin and Glossaire Grec of M. du Cange.

[16] Vide Euchol. Graec. pg. 147.

[17] Quia in aliquantis huius Provinciae Ecclesiis diacones absconsis infra tunicam utuntur orariis, ita ut nihil differre a subdiacono videantur, de caetero superposito scapulae (sicut decet) utantur orario (Con. Brac. I, (561), c. 8).

[18] Isid. orig. Book 19, chapter 22.

[19] See Lamprid. Hist. Aug.

[20] Et cum se dalmatica exspoliasset, et diaconibus tradidisset, in linea stetit (Cypr. act.).

[21] Quasi non hodie diaconi dalmaticis induantur sicut episcopi (Quaest. 46 apud Aug. vol. 3 append. col. 60).

[22] Dalmatica… tunica sacerdotalis, candida cum clavis ex purpura (Isid. orig. Book 19, chapter 22).

[23] Eadem vestis (dalmatica) candidatem habet… et coccineas virgulas (Rem. Aut. Expos. Miss.).

[24] Induat te indumento salutis, et vestimento laetitiae (De ord. diac.).

[25] See the Roman Ordo’s of the 14th and 15th centuries: Complicent et imponant super sinistrum humerumita quod ab humero sinistro descendat ad latus dextrum, sicut diaconalis stola (Ord. Rom. XIV). Exuit planetam, et plicatur ei ad modum stolae… ad latus dextrum inter cinctorum (Ord. Rom. XV). See also Gavantus in Rubr. p. 1, tit. 19, n. 6; M. Bocquillot and M. de Vert.

[26] Exuit se planeta diaconus, stolamque post tergum ducit subtus, dexteram alam una cum planeta (Amalarius, praefatio in lib. de offic.)

[27] Diaconus qui non est indutus dalmatica, casula circumcinctus legit (Alcuin de divin. offic.).

[28] Planeta…. complicatur: aut enim aliud genus stolae latioris in modum planetae plicatur (Rub. Miss.).